Types and composition of steering systems for electric forklifts
The steering system of electric forklifts is divided into two categories based on the energy used for steering: mechanical steering system (also known as manual steering system) and power steering system. The mechanical steering system relies entirely on the driver's physical energy to manipulate the steering and overcome the steering resistance moment; In the power steering system, the energy consumed to overcome the steering resistance moment is provided by the prime mover, and the driver manipulates the system to control the steering.
According to the different working principles of the steering system, the steering system can be divided into three categories: mechanical steering, power assisted steering (mechanical steering with power assisted device), and fully hydraulic power steering.
If the steering system of electric forklifts varies according to the number of steering wheels, it can be divided into various methods such as single wheel deflection, double wheel deflection, and all wheel deflection. Among them, the dual wheel deflection steering system is the most widely used. The components of a dual wheel deflection mechanical steering system can be summarized into two parts: one is the steering component, which mainly includes the steering wheel, steering shaft, and steering gear. The steering gear is a special deceleration transmission device used to amplify the control torque acting on the steering wheel and then transmit it to the steering wheel. It is the main component in the mechanical steering system that ensures lightweight steering; The steering wheel is a control component, and the steering shaft is the transmission shaft from the steering wheel to the steering gear. If the three are on the same axis, they can be assembled as a whole, called the steering gear assembly; If required by the general layout of the vehicle, the steering wheel and steering gear may not be on the same axis (the axes intersect or parallel), and they are connected by the steering shaft and universal joint; The second is the steering transmission mechanism, which is a set of spatial transmission rods, including the steering pitman arm, longitudinal link, steering knuckle arm, and single trapezoidal mechanism or sector plate and double trapezoidal mechanism. It transmits the amplified control torque to the left and right steering knuckles, causing the steering wheels to deflect. In the dual wheel deflection power steering system, the components of the mechanical steering system are basically retained, while the power steering movement is inserted to keep the length of the tie rod unchanged. The ball joint seat and torsion spring are blocked by the screw plug to prevent them from falling out.
There are various types of steering for electric forklifts and electric tractors. Small vehicles usually adopt simple mechanical manual steering systems, such as 0.4t and 0.5t electric forklifts and small tonnage tractors; For electric forklifts weighing over 1 ton, such as CPD1.5, CPD2, CPD3, etc., power steering systems are generally used.
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